Ferrous and non ferrous metals

Ferrous and non ferrous metals

Ferrous metals are those which contain iron, whilst non ferrous metals don’t have any iron content. There are, however, other differences between the two types of metal which have a strong bearing upon the tasks which they are usually called upon to perform.

The following are ferrous metals and the kind Ferrous and non ferrous metals of uses to which they are usually put:

Mild Steel – Carbon content of 0.1 to 0.3% and Iron content of 99.7 – 99.9%. Used for engineering purposes and in general, none specialised metal products.

Carbon steel – Carbon content of 0.6 to 1.4% and Iron content of 98.6 to 99.4 %. Used to make cutting tools such Ferrous and non ferrous metals as drill bits.

Stainless Steel – Мейд up of Iron, nickel and chromium.

These are the non ferrous metals and their uses:

Aluminium – An alloy of aluminium, copper and manganese. Very lightweight and easily worked. Used in aircraft manufacture, window frames and some kitchen ware.

Copper – Copper is a natural occurring Ferrous and non ferrous metals substance. The fact that it conducts heat and electricity means that it is used for wiring, tubing and pipe work.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

STRENGTH
The ability of a material to stand up to forces being applied without it bending, breaking, shattering or deforming in any way.
ELASTICITY
The ability of Ferrous and non ferrous metals a material to absorb force and flex in different directions, returning to its original position.
LASTICITY
The ability of a material to be change in shape permanently.
DUCTILITY
The ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually by stretching along its length.
TENSILE STRENGTH
The ability of a material to Ferrous and non ferrous metals stretch without breaking or snapping.

Modern construction material

Application of soldering and bonding in mechanical engineering increased by the widespread introduction of new structural

materials (such as plastics) and high-alloy steels, many of which are poorly welded. Examples of the use of solder in mechanical

engineering can serve Ferrous and non ferrous metals as radiators of cars and tractors, the combustion chamber liquid propellant engines, turbine blades, fuel

and oil lines, etc.

Engineering plastics are used as structural materials for the manufacture of a variety of parts, and as friction and antifriction

material. Because plastics are мейд toothed and worm gears, bearings, brakes parts, container body of Ferrous and non ferrous metals various transport

equipment, Details of pipelines, pumps and working bodies of the turbomachinery, tooling.

Metal cutting machines

machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing,

or other forms of deformation. Machine tools employ some sort of tool Ferrous and non ferrous metals that does the cutting or shaping. All machine tools have

some means of constraining the workpiece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the relative

movement between the workpiece and the cutting tool (which is called the toolpath) is controlled or constrained by the

machine to Ferrous and non ferrous metals at least some extent, rather than being entirely "offhand" or "freehand".

Examples of machine tools are: Broaching machine Drill press Gear shaper Hobbing machine ,Hone , Planer

Lathe Screw machines, Milling machine ,Shaper, Saws, Stewart platform mills, Grinding machines

Combines.

The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests grain crops Ferrous and non ferrous metals. The name derives from its combining three separate operations comprising harvesting—reaping, threshing, and winnowing—into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), sorghum, soybeans, flax (linseed), sunflowers, and canola. The waste straw left behind on the field is Ferrous and non ferrous metals the remaining dried stems and leaves of the crop with limited nutrients which is either chopped and spread on the field or baled for feed and bedding for livestock.

Combine harvesters are one of the most economically important labor saving inventions, significantly reducing the fraction of the population that must Ferrous and non ferrous metals be engaged in agriculture.

Agricultural machinery

The agricultural machinery industry or agricultural engineering industry is the part of the industry, that produces and maintain tractors, agricultural machinery and agricultural implements. This branch is considered to be part of the machinery industry.

The agricultural machinery industry produces agricultural machinery, machinery used Ferrous and non ferrous metals in the operation of agricultural areas and farms. Main types are:

Tractors and power.

Machinery for tillage or soil cultivation.

Machinery for planting, seeding, fertilizing, pest control, irrigation.

Machinery for harvesting, haymaking, and post-harvest, such as produce sorters, and machinery for loading

Machinery for milking

Other agricultural machinery, for example Ferrous and non ferrous metals grinder mixers, wool presses and windmills.

Types of tractors

A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.

Track Type Tractors

In these types of Tractors, instead of Ferrous and non ferrous metals wheels one track is fitted on either side. This track gets drive from the sprocket run by real axle shaft.

Half Track Type

In these types of Tractors, a small track chain is fitted at the rear end only while tyres are fitted at the front axle.

Wheel Ferrous and non ferrous metals Type Tractors

Their primary usage is in Agricultural tasks. They have fast running speed and the fitted tyres are able to absorb certain amount of field shock too.

The Types of Tractors in third classification depend upon the purpose for which they are used. They are further divided into broad categories listed Ferrous and non ferrous metals below:

Utility Tractors

Row Crop Tractor

Orchard Type

Industrial Tractor

Garden Tractor

Rotary Tillers

Implement Carrier

Earth Moving Tractors

THE HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE

consist of состоятьиз
self-moving самодвижущийся, самоходный
arise from обуславливаться
Unprovided необеспеченный
Rails железнодорожныепути
substantially существенно
adapt for приспособить
Cease не
luxury роскошь
decisive factor решающийфактор
solution решение
development развитие
roadmaintenance содержание дорог Ferrous and non ferrous metals
improvement усовершенствование

THE EARLY DAYS OF THE AUTOMOBILE

achievement достижение
Single один
attempt попытка
mechanical power механическаяэнергия
propel приводить в движение
suggest предлагать
military engineer военныйинженер
steam-driven engine паровойдвигатель
three-wheeled carriage трехколесныйэкипаж
Brake тормоз
gearbox коробкапередач
opposition сопротивление
Lag отставать
restriction ограничение
legi lative act законодательный акт Ferrous and non ferrous metals
outlaw воспрещать
Editor редактор
Issue издавать, выпускать
appear появляться
escort аккомпанировать
prosecute инкриминировать

THE CHANGING EXPECTATIONS OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

automotive engineer инженер-механик, инженер-автомобилист
to be associated with бытьсвязанным с
suspension system системаподвески
door handle двернаяручка
venture отважиться, рисковать
add-ons дополнительныеустройства
highligh t Придаватьбольшоезначение
competitive quality конкурентоспособноекачество
manufacturing capability производственные Ferrous and non ferrous metals (технологические)способности
software development Разработкапрограммногообеспечения
vehicle performance evaluation оценка работы машины
prior to computer simulation компьютерное моделирование
compliance соответствие
regulations технические нормы

METALS

Lattice решетка
metalloid металлоид,полу-металл
nonmetal неметалл
boron бор polonium полоний
copper медь
Iron железо
Lead свинец
conductance проводимость
valence band валентная область Ferrous and non ferrous metals (зона)
duct le эластичный
malleable ковкий
Alkali щелочь
hydrochloric acid хлористоводороднаякислота

ALLOYS

Alloy Сплав
property Свойство
homogeneous Однородный
heterogeneous Неоднородный
Tiny Небольшой
compound Соединение
carbon Углерод
hardening agent О верждающийреагент
Brittle Хрупкий
advent of furnaces появлениепечей
Damascus steel булатная сталь
tensile Растяжение
stainless steel нержавеющаясталь

DEFINITIONS

internal distribution of force внутреннеераспределениесилы
tensor quantity Ferrous and non ferrous metals тензорнаяв личина
compressive stress сжимающеенапряжение
uniaxial compression одноосное, линейноесжатие
tensile stress растягивающеенапряжение
tensile loading растягивающая нагрузка
shearstress касательное напряжение
compressivestrength крепкость при сжатии
compressive failure разрушениеприсжатии
ductile failure Пластическоеразрушение
brittle failure хрупкоеразрушение
tensile strength прочностьнарастяжение
tensile failure разрушениеприрастяжении
displacement field полеперемещений
Strain напряжение, раст жение
quotient Коэффициент, показатель
Hook Ferrous and non ferrous metals's law законГука
plasticity Пластичность
irreversible transformation необратимоепреобразование
viscosity Вязкость
Creep Ползучесть
elastic deformation (Viscoelasticity) упругаядеформация
plastic deformation(Viscoplasticity) пластичнаядеформация

THE HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE

Steam Пар
tricycle трехколесныйавтомобиль
prevail Преобладать
appear Появляться
storage battery аккумуляторнаябатарея
forerunner Предшественник
gasoline-powered engine бензиновыйдвигатель
horseless carriage самодвижущийсяэкипаж
hand-crank заводнаярукоятка, ручка
mount Устанавливать Ferrous and non ferrous metals
steering рулевоеустройство
Tiller рулевойрычаг
Gear Передача
Tire Шина
rubber Резина
smelly Пахнущий
shock absorber Амортизатор
luxury Роскошь
spark plug свечазажигания
reliable braking надежноеторможение
front suspension передняяподвеска
large-scale production крупномасштабноепроизводство
seat adjuster регуляторположениясиденья
ignition system системазажигания
fuel efficiency топливнаяэкономичность
passenger safety безопасность пассажиров
global positioning system (GPS) глобальная Ferrous and non ferrous metals навигационная спутниковая система
locatorbeacons приводной маяк

THE AUTOMOBILE LIFE CYCLE

conclude Заканчиваться
scrapping сдача в лом
approximately Примерно
account for Составлять
environmental impact воздействиенаокружающуюсреду
acquisition Добывание
processing Переработка
consumption Потребление
copious amounts огромноеколичество
involve Включать
release выделять, выпускать
assembly plant сборочныйзавод
pollutant загрязняющеевещество
coating Покрытие
wastewater сточные воды Ferrous and non ferrous metals
Trash Мусор
scrapmetal Металлолом
emission выброс, выделение



. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS

The machines are elements that are used to direct the action of forces based energy work, for his part in the agricultural, motor mechanisms used in this work lighten the production and improve farming techniques. Among the most widely used Ferrous and non ferrous metals agricultural machines working in the fields mentioned: § Tractor: is a very useful agricultural machine, with wheels or designed to move easily on the ground and pulling power enabling successful agricultural work, even in flooded fields. § Combine: or mower is a powerful engine agricultural machine, comb cutter to Ferrous and non ferrous metals cut the plants mature grain and a long rake that goes before the machine and rotates about a horizontal axis. § Plough: agricultural equipment is designed to open furrows in the earth consists of a blade, fence, plough, bead, bed, wheel and handlebar, which serve to cut and level the land, hold parts Ferrous and non ferrous metals of the plough, set shot and to serve as handle. § sprayer: it is a farm equipment designed to spray, is composed of a liquid tank, pressure pump, cap, mouth, tank and pressure valve, belts, hose, faucet and nozzle where the liquid to spray out, is insecticide, fungicide Ferrous and non ferrous metals or herbicide. § Tillage planter: is a machine to place the seeds on the seedbed without prior tillage. § Fertilizer: agricultural equipment is designed to distribute fertilizer is composed of three main parts: the hopper or storage of fertilizer, the drop tube of fertilizer and fertilizer distributor.


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